Garrett Bardsley – Missing Person

This may be the area where Garrett Bardsley went missing

The case of missing-child Garrett Bardsley has barely enough evidence to even mention in regard to potential attacks from a North American ropen. But even if only one child can be saved from being a victim, it will be worth all the efforts we can muster. Garrett may have simply become lost and succumbed to the weather, as many others have, over countless generations in countless mountain ranges; it’s not my place to speculate, as I have limited information at present. But this boy has a family and friends who have organized a foundation to help other children in need. That spirit of service deserves attention.

The Garrett Bardsley Foundation – for Rescuing

Who could ask more from any organization, for the more-conventional reasons a child could go missing in or near a wilderness area? More volunteers, better-qualified and arriving at the location quicker—those make it more likely that a lost child may be found faster. I applaud the efforts of all those who have become involved in this noble effort to find missing persons.

I highly recommend that people become involved in this mission of the Garrett Bardsley Foundation. New volunteers are welcome, surely.

The child Garrett Bardsley

It was only one sock in a field of boulders, and that’s not enough for me to speculate. I mention it here because other missing persons have items of clothing and shoes that are found away from where the living person or body was found, and some of those cases have more circumstantial evidence that a large ropen may have been responsible for the living person or body to be so far from where the person became missing. For those unaware of the Bardsley case, please see online resources or the book Missing 411 Western United States & Canada, by David Paulides.

Please be aware that the ideas present here are based upon preliminary information that I have received and are my own ideas, not those of the nonfiction author David Paulides.

Of the thousands of missing-persons cases investigated by Paulides, Garrett’s case was given three pages in his book; the following is from what I have learned from it.

He and his father were with other members of a Boy Scout camp at Cuberant Lake in the Uinta Mountains of Utah, on August 20, 2004, the day this boy disappeared. My heart goes out to each family member and friend.

Garrett and his father were fishing at the lake when the boy slipped and got his shoes and pants wet. He later walked back towards the camp to change his socks. This does suggest to me that the sock later found in the boulder field may have been there in relation to those circumstances. Without that account of the wet socks, the case would appear too similar to other cases to ignore, cases in which a person, body, or clothing/shoes were found in a boulder field or elsewhere, suggesting a ropen attack. I’m still too ignorant of the Bardsley case to speculate on it, so let’s move on.

The First Umboi Island Ropen Expedition of the Year 2004

How has my research related to missing-persons cases? This is complicated, so I’ll summarize.

In the final few weeks of preparation for my expedition in 2004, I knew nothing about this boy who went missing in the Uinta Mountains, and if I had read anything about it I would not have made the connection at that time. I arrived in Papua New Guinea in September of that year, knowing of occasional attacks on children and adults in remote tropical wildernesses of the southwest Pacific; but those apparently rare attacks related to my investigation only indirectly, or so I thought in 2004.

On Umboi Island, Papua New Guinea, I interviewed many native eyewitnesses, most of whom saw the ropen only at a distance at night. Michael, an old man in Opai Village, told me about a grave robbery in Gomlongon Village, decades earlier, but none of the natives I questioned in my two weeks on that island reported any first-hand account of an attack on a living human.

The ropen uses intrinsic bioluminescence to feed on clams and possibly fish, on the reefs that surround Umboi Island. Others of that species of flying creature apparently visit this island, probably temporarily, for breeding or to challenge the territory of this one large ropen. This kind of flying creature, at least in this species, may do some scavenging at night, but the main diet is probably what it catches on the reefs.

I learned of one missing-person case during my two weeks on Umboi Island, but it involved circumstantial evidence at best. An old lady, reportedly insane, said that she was going to look for the ropen. She left her village and was never seen again. I’ll not speculate on that; who knows?

I interviewed three of the seven eyewitnesses of the 1994-Lake-Pung flyover. Those three young men were highly credible in my opinion. They ran home in terror, after seeing the ropen fly over the surface of a crater lake at mid-day, about ten years before our interview. One of those three men still appeared to show signs of fear in answering my questions about the encounter (Mesa).

Human fear of an animal is not evidence that a particular ropen would attack a person, of course, but the size of this one explains the terror felt by those seven men, who were only boys or teenagers at the time.

Gideon Koro gave me his estimate for the length of the tail of this ropen: seven meters (23 feet). This could appear unbelievable to many Americans, except that some Australians and one American have seen similar flying creatures in the southwest Pacific, and some of their estimates for size are not that far afield from Gideon’s.

A few weeks after my return to the United States, two other American cryptozoologists explored Umboi Island in the second expedition of 2004. Their detailed interviews and observations confirmed my own conclusions: The ropen is a real animal, normally seen at night because of its bioluminescence, but definitely a long-tailed flying creature, as a few natives have seen it close enough to see not only the glow but some of the features, including the long tail.

Investigation by Jonathan Whitcomb

Over the past eleven years, I have devoted over 10,000 hours to this investigation of reports of apparent living pterosaurs. That does not prove that I have been perfectly objective, but we are all human, with various potential biases. The point is this: I have tried to see and understand various points of view, but I have probably spent more time in this narrow branch of cryptozoology than any other person on earth, during these past eleven years, and some of what I have learned deserves attention regarding a small fraction of the cases of human disappearances. Most missing persons surely can have their disappearances reasonably explained in conventional ways, but not all of them.

The Reality of the Ropen

On this subject of modern pterosaurs I have written three non-fiction books, one scientific paper in a peer-reviewed journal of science, and over a thousand online posts and web pages. I can only summarize here.

The official discovery of extant species of pterosaurs, by Western scientists, has been delayed for several reasons. It’s not just that they are uncommon flying creatures or that they are somehow confined to remote tropical jungles (they are not) or that they are mostly nocturnal. Westerners like Americans, Australians, Canadians, and many others, are indoctrinated into the concept that I call universal extinctions.

I do not dispute the extinctions of many species of pterosaurs, in their extraordinary varieties of head crests and other characteristics, known from fossils. But I proclaim the critical difference between universal extinction and near-extinction, for general types like dinosaur and pterosaur. I know that a few species of pterosaurs are still living in various areas of the planet, yet most of them are of a narrow range of characteristics: horn-like pointed head crest and long tail especially.

Numerous credible eyewitness from around the world, from various languages, various cultures, and various religious beliefs—they have seen the same basic type of featherless flying creature: an apparent Rhamphorhynchoid pterosaur. A small percentage of these non-bats grow to be quite large, sometimes larger than any bird classified by Western science. You don’t need to believe in the Genesis account of the Flood of Noah to see one of these flying creatures. You just need to be lucky enough (or unlucky) to be at a particular place at a particular time when you are looking in the right direction.

Gitmo Pterosaur of Guantanamo Bay Cuba, sighting in 1965

Sketch by Patty Carson: the large flying creature she saw when she was a child in Cuba

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Attacks in Canada and in Mexico

This must be greatly summarized here: Investigators other than myself have reported attacks on people in Mexico and in Canada. I have communicated with some of those who have interviewed victims or near-victims, and I believe that these are actual cases of attack. Now, why would Americans in wilderness areas of the United States be immune to attacks from these large flying creatures, if it happens in Mexico and in Canada?

Please be aware that the great majority of these flying creatures may never in their lives attack any human. Some appear to feed on fish or bats or birds, in various areas. It is only a few individuals among these uncommon animals, only a few, that attack people, and then mostly when a person is alone in a wilderness. These are rare cases compared with those many people who go missing because of simply becoming lost or a child being taken away by a non-custodial parent (or some other adult).

Attack on an Animal Prey

The ropen is only one type of modern pterosaur, but it is less rare than the other type, so we’ll now confine ourselves to this long-tailed flying creature. In at least one species, it has a way to subdue prey without greatly risking personal injury. The wings of the ropen are probably delicate enough to require the following.

From two sources, I have learned that, in at least one species, this predator has the capacity to emit a mist or vapor that is harmful or disabling to an animal or person who inhales it. The two researchers with whom I have communicated appear to have had no prior connections, so I consider their investigations to have been truly independent confirmations of this concept. One of them is the nonfiction author Gerald McIsaac of British Columbia, Canada.

At night, this emission can appear like a puff of smoke, but I’ll call it vapor. The concept is this: The ropen surprises an animal at night, flying close enough to emit the vapor into the prey’s face. If the vapor appears to have the desired effect, the ropen will then carry the prey away. This emission of a vapor has been witnessed in British Columbia and written about by McIsaac in his book Bird From Hell.

Missing Clothing and/or Shoes

If a large ropen attacks a human, one difference is critical: People wear clothing and shoes. That means the predator may sometimes grasp mostly a shoe or a coat or other article of clothing. Over a significant flying distance, the person may fall out of the clothing or shoe, leaving the flying predator with only that item or items, at least for a short flying distance.

Remember, humans are surely not the normal prey, so clothing is not accounted for, by the predators, in these attacks. When the animal realizes what has happened, it may fly back to look for the person. Sometimes that person may again be carried off; sometimes a ropen fails to locate the victim which sometimes allows human rescuers to later find a living person or body.

In any event, this kind of attack may result in strange pieces of clothing or shoes being missing from a found person or body, or found somewhere else. This does not mean that all cases in which clothing or shoes are missing is best explained by this kind of animal attack, but some cases appear to suggest this.

I wonder how much law enforcement knows about this concept.

The following sentence is taken from the online article “Searchers find 14-year-old Utah boy missing for four days alive” published by the Salt Lake Tribune on August 4, 2013:

The sheriff’s office had said it thought Duran would be barefoot and without a coat in the forest near 10,000 feet elevation, but the office did not disclose whether that turned out to be correct or disclose other details of Duran’s discovery on Sunday.

The Strange Case of Mike McDonald

How can any American explain the following case of a missing two-year-old who was found almost perfectly healthy? With no knowledge of these large flying creatures, this report could have baffled even a detective like Sherlock Holmes.

The two-year-old disappeared from his yard in Sulphur Springs Valley, Arizona, on October 30, 1945, and also missing was the family dog. Many people searched for the boy, with no success until the following day. This is where things get strange.

The little boy was found 15 miles away, sleeping in a little cave, and nearby was the family dog, perhaps standing guard over the two-foot-wide entrance to the cave. The only injury to the two-year-old Mike was a small cut on one foot. Consider the standard explanations:

  1. Predator like a mountain lion
  2. Predator like a bear
  3. Wandering child
  4. Kidnapping by a human

The first two make no sense for child who is found almost perfectly uninjured and 15 miles from where he went missing. A mountain lion is only slightly less unbelievable than a bear, but the long distance involved makes it practically impossible to move a human without additional injuries.

A two-year-old human does not wander fifteen miles from home within one day. Even if Mike could have covered that distance, how would he have known where to find a cave to shelter his little body? The two men who found him knew nothing about that cave until they saw the family dog there, apparently protecting little Mike.

How could a human kidnapper be heartless enough to steal away that precious little one and yet have the heart to put him in a sheltering cave and then again be heartless enough to leave him there to die? Kidnappers don’t usually have so many changes of heart within twenty-four hours. And why allow the family dog to follow along and then remain to stand guard over the cave entrance? In addition, if a human kidnapped that child, how easy it might have been for trackers to follow his trail! Tracking did not find the child, but good fortune did.

Explaining the McDonald Case

As best as I can make it out for now, here is probably what happened:

A medium-sized ropen surprised the child, subduing him with vapor enough that he did not cry out. Dog barking may have been normal during play time, so the mother took little notice of this particular barking. To avoid exerting unnecessary energy, the ropen acted as it normally did when carrying away a prey animal, flying no higher than was necessary. This allowed the dog to follow along, not necessarily close behind but within sight.

When the ropen arrived at its little cave, it made an unpleasant discovery. That dog was catching up, soon to be upon him. The ropen left the boy in the cave and flew up into the air, just out of reach of the guardian. Nothing that average-sized ropen could do would discourage the dog. Every time the predator would swoop down to deliver a dose of vapor, the dog would run away at full speed (dogs are not stupid). The ropen could not enter the cave without risk of getting bitten, so it eventually gave up. It flew away to find a better hiding place, leaving the family dog to stand guard over the cave entrance.

Mike was fortunate to have only one small cut on one foot. Many other victims have been found badly scratched, sometimes no longer living (although death is often more likely to have come from exposure than from a fall or from scratches). In this case, a ropen may have been holding mostly clothing and the clothing was holding onto the child, fortunate indeed. I believe the vapor had an affect. Perhaps it was a normal sleep for that two-year-old, when he was found; I’m not so sure it was a normal sleep.

"Adahmeve" means marriage between a man and a woman

Jonathan and Gladys Whitcomb at Ensign Peak, Salt Lake City, Utah, 2014

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Missing Persons and Flying Creatures

I’m only beginning to learn about missing-person mysteries in the United States, having received two books in the mail only yesterday: “Missing 411 Western United States & Canada” and the more-recently published “Missing 411 The Devil’s in the Detail,” both by the investigative journalist David Paulides.

Cuberant Lake, Utah

Nick and a co-worker of mine both put the story of Garrett Bardsley back in my head, independent of one another. I’d covered the story when it originally happened and it, along with the deaths of Carole Weatherton and Kim Beverly, are two great mysteries of the area.

Honestly, I Told the Truth

. . . aren’t fossil experts supposed to write about fossils? Is not the favorite subject of conversation, for a paleontologist, the remains of ancient, primitive dinosaurs and pterosaurs? That’s what I thought, until last month.

American Cryptozoologist Jonathan Whitcomb

Within days of Paul Nation’s return to the United States, Whitcomb flew to Texas and interviewed the cryptozoologist, then returned to California with what may have been the first substantial physical evidence, ever brought back to the United States, for the bioluminescence of large flying creatures that may be living pterosaurs.

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Ropen book, non-fiction, by Whitcomb

Quest for discovering modern pterosaurs: Searching for Ropens and Finding God

From the title page in this nonfiction paperback:

This overshadows common true-life adventures, revealing the early stages of what may become the most unsettling scientific discovery since Galileo and Copernicus. It soars above disputes about religion, revealing why an official discovery of an extraordinary animal was delayed for so long. Above all, this explores human experiences—of eyewitnesses and those who interviewed them.

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Jonathan Whitcomb Interviewed by Dave Scott (Podcast Radio)

Logo for the podcast "Spaced Out Radio"

The Spaced Out Radio Show featured Dave Scott interviewing me, for two hours on the night of December 18, 2014, Pacific Standard Time, in a podcast called “Pterodactyls exist in 2014?” The following is part of the beginning of that interview.

Logo for the podcast "Spaced Out Radio"

Dave Scott:

. . . every now and again you get these topics . . . that just excite you. It’s this one for me. . . . Dinosaurs were said to have gone extinct 50, 60 million years ago. . . . however, what if, and just what if—think of the possibilities—what if not all of them are extinct?

Take the pterodactyl. People between the United States—right now—towards South America, over in New Guinea believe that the pterodactyl is still alive and that they are breeding. There might not be a lot of sightings of them, but people say they exist. Scientists will tell us something different . . . “Nope; they’re gone; they’re done . . .” but people are still seeing them.

This is why tonight we’ve brought Jonathan Whitcomb aboard. He’s a cryptozoologist and he’s on the hunt for the pterodactyl. Jonathan, welcome to Spaced Out Radio; how are you this evening?

Jonathan Whitcomb:

Oh, great, Dave. I’m so delighted to be here with you!

Scott:

And we’re delighted to have you as well. OK, I’m going to hit you with the million-dollar question, right off the bat: Are pterodactyls alive in 2014?

Whitcomb:

Yes, they are alive indeed. In fact, my associates and I believe there are more than one species in different parts of the world. It’s incredible but we’ll get into that: explain how that happened. Yeah, they are alive.

Scott:

That just amazes me that they are so hidden and yet regular science does not believe that they are alive; but I suggest that’s why there [are] cryptozoologists, like yourself, out there who are experienced in looking for this type of animal.

Whitcomb:

Yeah. I guess, to begin with, we should mention that a definition in the dictionary always includes the word extinct, so no matter what dictionary you use you’ll always find the word extinct, so technically, if we’re going by the dictionary, you know, we can’t do anything, but what we’re seeing here is that actually the creatures that are known commonly as pterodactyls and officially known by scientists as pterosaurs, that they actually do have representation in modern times . . .

The problem with discovery is multiple: They’re mostly nocturnal and the Western scientists have just assumed they’re all extinct. Well, the fact is that apparently a number of the types that we know from fossils are, unfortunately, . . . extinct, we have a very narrow band of types of pterosaurs . . . with particular types now, with particular types of head crests. So basically, in the general sense, yeah, pterosaurs . . . are extinct, but there are certain narrow ranges of species that are still alive.

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From one who listened to this podcast:

. . . Jonathan David Whitcomb, did an incredible interview last night on his research concerning living pterodactyls. It’s awesome to think that the world is so much bigger than we think and that there are more discoveries to be made!

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Jonathan Whitcomb videos on YouTube

In 1944, in (Papua) New Guinea, Duane Hodgkinson and his friend saw a “pterodactyl” with a wingspan similar to a Piper Tri-Pacer (29 feet).

Honesty and reports of modern pterosaurs

Within the past few weeks, three web sites have caught my attention, each with a page accusing me of dishonesty. Two of them appear to be based on the other . . .

Weirdness and Whitcomb’s book on live pterosaurs

. . . as a child I was rather obsessed with dinosaurs, as many young boys are, and read everything I could find on them, and I thought I knew about Pterodactyls, Pteradnodons  and a few others like the Rhamphorhyncus. So I recalled they were all Pterosaurs, and looked up the Order. First surprise is technically they were not dinosaurs at all . . .  I wanted to read about people who had been chased by pterodactyls! . . . then suddenly found that there actually was a “Living Pterosaur” research community, a fringe even within cryptozoology.

Podcast-Radio Interview in 2012

We first had fossils that were discovered in Western science . . . in 1780’s . . . about the time that George Washington became president. . . . Since then, scientists have continuously discovered new fossils . . . delicate kind of bones, so a lot of times they’re just crushed . . .

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Look Overhead, not Underfoot

Perosaur Sketch by Eskin Kuhn

On page 191 of the fourth edition of Searching for Ropens and Finding God I wrote:

You cannot see what’s overhead when you focus on what’s underfoot, and you cannot perceive what you believe cannot be seen. C. S. Lewis was aware it’s not “seeing is believing:” Believing allows us to see.

“Extinction” – Really?

A skeptic may look down on those of us who publicize reports of apparent modern pterosaurs, yet where is the explanation for universal extinction of all species of those flying creatures? Consider the following, quoting from three nonfiction books on these extraordinary flying creatures:

From the Book Live Pterosaurs in America, third edition

My experience interviewing natives [in Papua New Guinea] and reviewing interviews done by other explorers—that suggests it’s easier to catch a giant ropen in a fishing net than to find a native eyewitness who disbelieves personal experience because of what American professors assume. Eyewitnesses in a culture that dogmatically teaches pterosaur extinction—they sometimes have problems dealing with an experience that they feel should not have been experienced; native eyewitnesses in New Guinea have no problem. [from page 95 of the book]

From Live Pterosaurs in Australia and in Papua New Guinea

The first discovery of a pterosaur fossil by a Western scientist, in 1784, was decades before Charles Darwin began writing about his ideas on extinctions and evolution. Before Darwin, Western scientists had assumed that all species of pterosaurs were extinct for a simple reason: Those who discovered the fossils had no experience with any similar animal that was living.

Also important, probably no scientist at that time had considered that a few species of pterosaurs might still be alive, rarely seen because they’re both uncommon and nocturnal. Today, some cryptozoologists believe that one or more of their species are indeed uncommon and nocturnal—and still alive.

From Searching for Ropens and Finding God, fourth edition (Chapter 23)

The paleontologists are rare who take notice of my associates and me, at least through mid-2014. When one has commented on what we declare about modern pterosaurs, it’s usually with a word like “extinction” but in a difference sense: the demise of all species of pterosaurs. Am I slicing quarks? I know of nobody who denies that many pterosaurs may have lived without leaving any fossil. Beware of the fog around two meanings of a word. Even if all species of pterosaurs known from fossils had become extinct long ago, we live in the real world of the present, a world in which people report encountering living pterosaurs.

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Why do I often use the phrase “apparent modern pterosaurs?” Since I firmly believe that some species of these flying creatures are still living, why do I use the word apparent? Take any particular sighting as an example: We probably cannot come to any certain conclusion if that one encounter was with a modern pterosaur. But the overall reports worldwide, over years, over decades, and over generations—they prove the case, for it is practically impossible for all of those countless sightings to have come from non-pterosaurs, when so many descriptions so clearly point to pterosaurs.

Consider sighting reports of a rare bird that may become extinct. One reported encounter alone, in a particular location, is not proof that the species is living there. But a number of reports can make it obvious.

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Perosaur Sketch by Eskin Kuhn
Kuhn saw two pterosaurs in Cuba, in 1971

Sketch drawn by eyewitness Eskin Kuhn

Extraordinary Declarations Demand Extraordinary Evidence

Why should any paleontologist insist that all species of pterosaurs must have become extinct many millions of years ago? That’s an extraordinary assumption, an extreme position that demands explaining. Remember, this is not about one or two or fifteen species or varieties of pterosaurs but ALL of them that ever existed.

How many species of them have lived on this earth? It’s impossible to say, but the experts believe that most of them left no fossil evidence for their existence. Taking that point of view, how can anybody point to fossils as if they are evidence for universal extinction?

Is Pterosaur Extinction for Real?

I have estimated that millions of eyewitnesses, worldwide, have seen a modern living pterosaur, perhaps as many as 128 million persons. How can I make such an extraordinary statement? From the number of eyewitnesses who have contacted me, over the past eleven years, from around the world. Only a tiny fraction of the world’s population has the knowledge, desire, and ability to communicate with me about the flying creatures that they have encountered in their lifetimes. Consider some of the reasons so few of them have contacted me:

  1. Natives of Africa, Papua New Guinea, and elsewhere have no internet access
  2. Where pterosaurs are more common—that’s where people don’t talk much about them
  3. Eyewitnesses who have a computer—they have other things to talk about
  4. Most eyewitnesses do not know English
  5. Most of them do not know a few Americans are looking for pterosaurs
  6. Few eyewitnesses can afford to communicate by email

Please be aware: When I say that few eyewitnesses have contacted me, I mean compared with all of the probable eyewitnesses worldwide. I continue to get emails from those who have encountered these flying creatures, and the great majority of them hold up under my credibility examinations. So how do fossil experts reply?

One prominent paleontologist explained, during an interview, that the reason pterosaurs are extinct is that people would have seen them, if they still existed. Unfortunately, that paleontologist seems to have neglected to question any of the cryptozoologists involved. He seems to have assumed their investigations are somehow invalid or of little or no consequence. He has mentioned misidentifications to explain native testimonies, yet he has kept quiet about critical non-native testimonies of giant flying creatures that could not have been birds or bats. He says nothing about Duane Hodgkinson or Brian Hennessy or the couple in Perth, Australia.

Conclusion

Look overhead, rather than underfoot, for these worldwide sightings of modern pterosaurs refute the old universal-extinction proclamations. Take a break from swimming in your imagination, Mr. paleontologist, and open your eyes to the real world of the present, where people see these extraordinary flying creatures.

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Searching for Ropens and Finding God, fourth edition (2014)

pre-publication version of the front cover of this nonfiction book

Nonfiction paperback on modern pterosaurs worldwide

This overshadows common true-life adventures, revealing the early stages of what may become the most unsettling scientific discovery since Galileo and Copernicus. It soars above disputes about religion, revealing why an official discovery of an extraordinary animal was delayed for so long. Above all, this explores human experiences—of eyewitnesses and those who interviewed them. People have become connected by common encounters: Persons of various faiths, with various levels of education, from various countries and cultures, have seen a living pterosaur. [From the title page of the book]

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To be Extinct or not to be Extinct, That is the Question

With apologies to Shakespeare:

To be extinct, or not to be extinct, that is the question:
Whether it’s no bull or in the mind, pterosaur eyewitnesses suffer
The slings and arrows from outraged paleontologists

From a recent press release:

Extinct or not extinct, that is the question about pterosaurs

How rarely do we read anything about dinosaurs or pterosaurs without reference to extinction millions of years ago! But a controversial idea promoted by the American cryptozoologist Jonathan Whitcomb has caught the attention of the Houston Chronicle, a Smithsonian magazine blog, and a well-known paleontologist in England. Not everybody embraces living pterosaurs.

Indeed, from my eight years of investigating reports of living pterosaurs, I know that not everybody embraces living pterosuars.

“It Would Have Been Seen” if BigFoot Existed

Looking straight at their reasoning reveals the problem: “People who say they saw X could not have really seen X because if X existed then somebody would have seen X.”

Perhaps what some skeptics mean is more like this: “If X existed, newspapers would have it in their headlines before now” (with “X” representing any cryptid, including a living pterosaur). Well, this may be news to some skeptics, but if I recall correctly, as I was taking a plane from Papua New Guinea to Australia, after finishing my expedition in 2004, I was reading a newspaper that had a front page headline directing readers to an article about my findings and experiences (and my interpreter’s) from interviewing eyewitnesses of the ropen of Umboi Island. That newspaper was (and probably still is) one of the two largest in Papua New Guinea.

If critics are only interested in American newspapers that have headline stories that are favorable to the possibility of a living pterosaur, then read on:

Sightings in Antwerp, Ohio

The Antwerp Bee-Argus newspaper (Aug 5, 2009 issue) gave an account of two sightings over the Maumee River, Ohio: 2002 and 2003, both in the daylight heat of summer. (More detailed information is in my book Live Pterosaurs in America . . .

That newspaper article, I remember clearly, had a front-page headline about a modern-pterosaur sighting (with the article starting on the front page, as well). In addition, it was positive, not negative, about the possibility of a living pterosaur in Ohio.